Friday, 15 December 2017

PARABENS



Parabens are preservatives used in a wide variety of personal care products and foods to prevent the growth of microbes. These endocrine-disrupting chemicals can be absorbed through skin, blood and the digestive system.[1] 
FOUND IN: Shampoos, conditioners, lotions, facial and shower cleansers and scrubs
WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL:  Ethylparaben, butylparaben, methylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben, other ingredients ending in –paraben
WHAT ARE PARABENS? Parabens are actually several distinct chemicals with a similar molecular structure. Several are common in a wide array cosmetic and personal care products: ethylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben, methylparaben and propylparaben.MORE...
HEALTH CONCERNS: Endocrine disruption, cancer, developmental and reproductive toxicity MORE...
VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: Pregnant women and young children
REGULATIONS: Some forms of parabens are banned in Denmark (propyl and butyl paraben, their isoforms and their salts) in cosmetics products for children up to 3 years.[2]
HOW TO AVOID: Look for products labeled “paraben-free” and read ingredient lists on labels to avoid products with parabens. Many natural and organic cosmetics manufacturers have found effective alternatives to parabens to prevent microbial growth in personal care products. Some companies have created preservative-free products that have shorter shelf lives than conventional products (six months to a year). 

References

[1] Gray, J. State of the Evidence: The Connection between Breast Cancer and the Environment, 2008.
[2] Danish Ministry of the Environment-Environmental Protection Agency. Statutory order on restriction on import, sale and use of certain parabens in cosmetic products for children under 3 years. Available online: http://eng.mst.dk/media/mst/Attachments/Engelskparabenbekendtgrelse.pdf August 12, 2014.
[3] Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Final amended report on the safety assessment of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, isopropylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben, and benzyparaben as used in cosmetic products. International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp 1-82, 2008. Available online: http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/paraben_build.pdf August 12, 2014.
[4] Ye X., et al., Parabens as urinary biomarkers of exposure in humans. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, pp 1843-1846, 2006.
[5] Calafat AM., et al., Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. Population: NHANES 2005-2006. Environ Health Persp, vol. 118, no. 5, pp 679–685, 2010.
[6] Darbre PD, et al.,  Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumors. Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol.  24, pp 5-13, 2004.
[7] Barr L., et al., Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum. J Appl Toxicol, vol. 32, no. 3, pp 219–232, 2012.
[8] Prusakiewicz JJ., et al., Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: Possible link to paraben estrogenic effects. Toxicology, vol. 232, pp 248-56, 2007.
[9] Darbre PD., et al., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[10] Prusakiewicz JJ., et al., Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: Possible link to paraben estrogenic effects. Toxicology, vol. 232, pp 248-56, 2007.
[11] Darbre PD., et a., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[12] Golden R., et al., A review of the endocrine activity of parabens and implications for potential risks to human health. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, vol. 35, pp 435-58, 2005.
[13] Dabre PD., et al., Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp 219-26. 2002.
[14] Oishi S., Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol 17, pp 31-9, 2001.
[15] Kawaguchi M., et al., Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure decreased the plasma corticosterone level in dams and sensitivity to estrogen in female offspring rats. J. Vet. Med. Sci., vol. 71, no. 8, pp 1027-33, 2009.
[16] Oishi S., Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol 17, pp 31-9, 2001.
[17] Darbre PD., et a., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[18] Prusakiewicz JJ., et al., Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: Possible link to paraben estrogenic effects. Toxicology, vol. 232, pp 248-56, 2007.
[19] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Methyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=667 August 7, 2014.
[20] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Ethyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=573 August 7, 2014.
[21] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Propyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=795 August 7, 2014.
[22] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Butyl paraben. Available online:
[23] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Isopropyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=916 August 7, 2014.
[24] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Isobutyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=915 August 7, 2014.
[25] Darbre PD., et a., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[26] Ishiwatari S., et al., Effects of methyl paraben on skin keratinocytes. J. Appl. Toxicol, vol 27, pp 1-9, 2007.
[27] Ishiwatari S., et al., Effects of methyl paraben on skin keratinocytes. J. Appl. Toxicol, vol 27, pp 1-9, 2007.
[28] Darbre PD., et a., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[29] Oishi S.,Lack of spermatotoxic effects of methyl and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 42, pp 1845-49, 2004.
[30] Taxvig C., et al., Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis? Toxicological Sciences, vol. 106, no. 1, pp 206-13, 2008.
[31] Taxvig C., et al., Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis? Toxicological Sciences, vol. 106, no. 1, pp 206-13, 2008.
[32] Oishi S., Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol 17, pp 31-9, 2001.
[33] Kang KS., et al., Decreased sperm number and motile activity on the F1 offspring maternally exposed to butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid (butyl paraben). J. Vet. Med. Sci., vol. 64, no. 3, pp 227-35, 2002.
[34] Oishi S., Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol 17, pp 31-9, 2001.
[35] Taxvig C., et al., Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis? Toxicological Sciences, vol. 106, no. 1, pp 206-13, 2008.
[36] Kawaguchi M., et al., Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure decreased the plasma corticosterone level in dams and sensitivity to estrogen in female offspring rats. J. Vet. Med. Sci., vol. 71, no. 8, pp 1027-33, 2009.
[37] Kawaguchi M., et al., Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure alters anxiety and passive avoidance test performance in adult male rats. Neuroscience Research, vol. 65, no. 2, pp 136-40, 2009.

Monday, 11 December 2017

Natural Handcrafted Handmade Artisan Soap

Century Old Family of Natural Handcrafted Handmade Artisan Soap

Santa Lucia Murari Borba was a farmer's daughter from Murari's Borba, born in Italy 1904. She moved to Brazil in 1917 from her home in Tuscany, Italy where she had to learn to (make soap from scratch) and essential oils from the plants out of necessity.

New Soaps For Yourself Or A Great Gift For Someone Special!
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Friday, 8 December 2017

RejudiCare Synergy Purecleanse

Gentle Cleansing Emulsion

Gentle, Effective Cleanser for Brighter, Fresher Skin


Soothes and Pampers the Skin
  • Alteromonas Ferment Extract (AFE) protects skin from inflammation
  • Contains antioxidant properties
  • Very stable
Light Texture Cleansing Milk
  • Glides smoothly over the face
  • Works efficiently requiring no scrubbing with
    a face cloth
  • Rinses off with a splash of water
  • Non-drying, non-irritating
  • IFRA compliant fragrance
Purecleanse
  • For normal, sensitive or ultra-sensitive skin
  • Ideal for skin prone to redness and rosacea
  • Ideal for oily skin
  • Efficiently removes makeup, oil and other impurities
  • Daily use soothes and brightens skin
  • Leaves skin feeling soft and refreshed
  • First step in the Rejudicare Skin
    Conditioning System

Monday, 4 December 2017

RejudiCare Synergy Purecleanse

Gentle Cleansing Emulsion

Gentle, Effective Cleanser for Brighter, Fresher Skin


Soothes and Pampers the Skin
  • Alteromonas Ferment Extract (AFE) protects skin from inflammation
  • Contains antioxidant properties
  • Very stable
Light Texture Cleansing Milk
  • Glides smoothly over the face
  • Works efficiently requiring no scrubbing with
    a face cloth
  • Rinses off with a splash of water
  • Non-drying, non-irritating
  • IFRA compliant fragrance
Purecleanse
  • For normal, sensitive or ultra-sensitive skin
  • Ideal for skin prone to redness and rosacea
  • Ideal for oily skin
  • Efficiently removes makeup, oil and other impurities
  • Daily use soothes and brightens skin
  • Leaves skin feeling soft and refreshed
  • First step in the Rejudicare Skin
    Conditioning System

Monday, 27 November 2017

TiZo® skincare system is formulated to support the skin’s natural anti-aging defenses






 TiZo Photoceutical is a professional line of skincare and sunscreen. The Photoceutical line consists of 4 products: an AM moisturizer, PM moisturizer, face wash, and face sunscreen.  . 

TiZo Skin Firm Technology™ is a unique breathable, 3-dimensional, self-healing vehicle system, designed to deliver performance ingredients to the skin unlike any other skin care line.

Friday, 24 November 2017

FORMALDEHYDE AND FORMALDEHYDE-RELEASING PRESERVATIVES





Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing preservatives (FRPs) are used in many personal care products,[1] particularly in shampoos and liquid baby soaps. These chemicals, which help prevent microbes from growing in water-based products, can be absorbed through the skin and have been linked to cancer and allergic skin reactions.
FOUND IN: Nail polish, nail glue, eyelash glue, hair gel, hair-smoothing products, baby shampoo, body soap, body wash, color cosmetics.
WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Formaldehyde, quaternium-15, DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, polyoxymethylene urea, sodium hydroxymethylglycinate, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (bromopol) and glyoxal.
WHAT IS FORMALDEHYDE? Formaldehyde is a colorless, strong-smelling gas used in a wide range of industries and products including building materials, walls, cabinets furniture and personal care products.[2]
WHAT ARE FORMALDEHYDE-RELEASING PRESERVATIVES AND WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?In personal care products, formaldehyde can be added directly, or more often, it can be released from preservatives[3] [4] such as quaternium-15, DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, polyoxymethylene urea, sodium hydroxymethylglycinate, bromopol and glyoxal. MORE...
HEALTH CONCERNS: Cancer, skin irritation  MORE...
VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: Infants, hair salon workers, nail salon workers.
REGULATIONS: Banned from use in cosmetics and toiletries in Japan and Sweden[37]; in the EU, restricted in personal care products, and labeling is required in products that do contain these chemicals[38]; concentration restrictions in Canada.[39] The EU allows the use of Quaternium-15 up to 0.2% as a preservative in cosmetic products.[40]
HOW TO AVOID: Read labels and avoid products containing the following ingredients: Formaldehyde, quaternium-15, dimethyl-dimethyl (DMDM) hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, sodium hydroxymethylglycinate, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (bromopol). In addition, choose nail products that are labeled formaldehyde-free or “toxic-trio-free” (formaldehyde, toluene and DBP). Skip hair-smoothing products—especially those sold in salons, as salon-based products are exempt from labeling laws. Don’t use expired cosmetic products or store cosmetic products in the sun because this can cause more formaldehyde to be released.[41]
References
[1] Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-food Products. Opinion concerning a clarification on the formaldehyde and para-formaldehyde entry in Directive 76/768/EEC on cosmetic products. Opinion: European Commission. 2002. Available Online: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sccp/out187_en.pdf. Accessed Online October 16, 2009.
[3] Moennich JN, Hanna DM, Jacob SE (2009). Environmental Exposures-A pediatric perspective on allergic contact dermatitis. Skin & Aging. July 2009:28-36.
[4] Jacob SE, Breithaupt A (2009). Environmental Exposures-A pediatric perspective in baby and cosmetic products. Journal of the Dermatology Nurses’ Association 1:211-214.
[5] Flyvholm MA, Hall BM, Agner T, Tiedemann E, Greenhill P, Vanderveken W, Freeberg FE, Menne T. Threshold for occluded formaldehyde patch test in formaldehyde-sensitive patients. Relationship to repeated open application test with a product containing formaldehyde releaser. Contact Dermatitis. 1997;36(1):26-33.
[6] Jordan WP Jr., Sherman WT, King SE. (2009). Threshold responses in formaldehyde-sensitive subjects. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1979;1(1):44-48. Also confirmed by personal communication between Dr. Sharon Jacob and Stacy Malkan, February 26, 2009.
[7] Lv, C., Hou, J., Xie, W., & Cheng, H. (2015). Investigation on formaldehyde release from preservatives in cosmetics. International journal of cosmetic science.
[8] Becker, L. C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Hill, R., Leibler, D., … & Andersen, F. A. (2010). Final report of the amended safety assessment of quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(3 suppl), 98S-114S.
[9] Propionate, A., Chloride, B., Urea, D., Black, D., Hydantoin, D. M. D. M., Acetate, E., … & Glycerides, H. T. (2008). Annual Review of Cosmetic Ingredient Safety Assessments. International Journal of Toxicology, 27(1), 77-142.
[10] Imidazolidinyl Urea Available Online: http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/703119/IMIDAZOLIDINYL_UREA_%28FORMALDEHYDE_RELEASER%29/. Accessed September 19, 2015.
[11] Imidazolidinyl urea Available Online: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/chem_background/exsumpdf/imidazolidinylurea_508.pdf. Accessed September 28, 2015.
[12] Lv, C., Hou, J., Xie, W., & Cheng, H. (2015). Investigation on formaldehyde release from preservatives in cosmetics. International journal of cosmetic science.
[13] Diazolidinyl Urea Available Online: http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/701923/DIAZOLIDINYL_UREA_%28FORMALDEHYDE_RELEASER%29/#. Accessed September 19, 2015.
[14] Polyoxymethylene Available Online: http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/705083/POLYOXYMETHYLENE_UREA_%28FORMALDEHYDE_RELEASER%29/. Accessed September 19, 2015.
[15] Russell, K., & Jacob, S. E. (2010). Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate. Dermatitis, 21(2), 109-110.
[16] Nitrosamines available online: http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/nitrosamines. Accessed September 23, 2015.
[17] Andersen, F. A. (2000). Amended final report on the safety assessment of Glyoxal. International journal of toxicology, 19, 13-27.
[18] International Agency for Research on Cancer. “IARC classifies formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans.” Press release. June 15, 2004. www.iarc.fr/en/MEdia-Centre/IARC-Press-Releases/Archives-2006-2004/2004/IARC-classifies-formaldehyde-as-carcinogenic-to-humans. Accessed January 9, 2009.
[19] Zhang et al 2009. Meta-analysis of formaldehyde and hematologic cancers in humans. Mutation Research 681: 150-168.
[20] Yoshida, I., & Ibuki, Y. (2014). Formaldehyde-induced histone H3 phosphorylation via JNK and the expression of proto-oncogenes. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 770, 9-18.
[21] Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Priority Existing Chemical Assessment Report No. 28: Formaldehyde. November 2006. Page 68. Available Online: http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/CAR/PEC/PEC28/PEC_28_Full_Report_PDF.pdf. Accessed January 9, 2009.
[22] Bartnik FG, Gloxhuber C, Zimmerman V. (1985). Percutaneous absorption of formaldehyde in rats. Toxicol Lett, 25(2):167-172.
[23] Nitrosamines available online: http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/nitrosamines. Accessed September 23, 2015.
[24] Pontén, A., & Bruze, M. (2015). Formaldehyde. Dermatitis, 26(1), 3-6.
[25] Pontén, A., & Bruze, M. (2015). Formaldehyde. Dermatitis, 26(1), 3-6.
[26] Flyvholm MA, Menne T. (1992). Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde. A case syudy focusing on sources of formaldehyde exposure. Contact Dermatitis, 27(1):27-36.
[27] Boyvat A, Akyol A, Gurgey E (2005). Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey. Contact Dermatitis, 52(6):333-337.
[28] Pratt MD, Belsito DV, DeLeo VA, Fowler JF Jr, Fransway AF, Maibach HI, Marks JG, Mathias CG, Rietschel RL, Sasseville D, Sheretz EF, Storss FJ, Taylor JS, Zug K. (2004). North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch-test results, 2001-2002 study period. Dermatitis, 27(1):27-36.
[29] Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Priority Existing Chemical Assessment Report No. 28:Formadehyde. November 2006. Page 193. Available online: http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/CAR/PEC/PEC28/PEC_28_Full_Report_PDF.pdf. Accessed January 9, 2009.
[30] Pontén, A., & Bruze, M. (2015). Formaldehyde. Dermatitis, 26(1), 3-6.
[31] Jacob SE and Steele T (2007). Avoid Formaldehyde Allergic Reactions in Children. Pediatric Annals, 36(1):55-56.
[32] Becker, L. C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Hill, R., Leibler, D., … & Andersen, F. A. (2010). Final report of the amended safety assessment of quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(3 suppl), 98S-114S.
[33] Becker, L. C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Hill, R., Leibler, D., … & Andersen, F. A. (2010). Final report of the amended safety assessment of quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(3 suppl), 98S-114S.
[34] Andersen, F. A. (2000). Amended final report on the safety assessment of Glyoxal. International journal of toxicology, 19, 13-27.
[35] Russell, K., & Jacob, S. E. (2010). Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate. Dermatitis, 21(2), 109-110.
[36] Russell, K., & Jacob, S. E. (2010). Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate. Dermatitis, 21(2), 109-110.
[37] Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-food Products. Opinion concerning a clarification on the formaldehyde and para-formaldehyde entry in Directive 76/768/EEC on cosmetic products. Opinion: European Commission. 2002. Available Online: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sccp/out187_en.pdf. Accessed Online October 16, 2009.
[38] Other uses of formaldehyde have different restrictions in Canada. Canada’s Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist Available Online: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/person/cosmet/info-ind-prof/_hot-list-critique/hotlist-liste_1-eng.php. Accessed October 16, 2009.
[39] Amparo S and Chisvert A (2007). Analysis of Cosmetic Products. Elsevier. Amsterdam, p. 215.
[40] Becker, L. C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Hill, R., Leibler, D., … & Andersen, F. A. (2010). Final report of the amended safety assessment of quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(3 suppl), 98S-114S.
[41] Lv, C., Hou, J., Xie, W., & Cheng, H. (2015). Investigation on formaldehyde release from preservatives in cosmetics. International journal of cosmetic science.

Monday, 13 November 2017

CARCINOGENS IN COSMETICS



The laws governing cosmetics and personal care products are so limited that known cancer-causing chemicals, or carcinogens, are legally allowed in personal care products. Some carcinogens, such as formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, are common in personal care products, while others are less common, but still occasionally present.
FOUND IN: A wide variety of products, depending upon the ingredient

HOW CAN YOU AVOID CARCINOGENS IN COSMETICS?

Read labels and avoid cosmetics and personal care products containing formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing preservatives (quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, and 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3 diol), phenacetin, coal tar, benzene, untreated or mildly treated mineral oils, ethylene oxide, chromium, cadmium and its compounds, arsenic and crystalline silica (or quartz).
HEALTH CONCERNS: Cancer, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive toxicity, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity.
VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: All
REGULATIONS: Formaldehyde is prohibited in Japan,[1] and restricted in the EU;[2] coal tar is prohibited in the EU;[3] benzene is prohibited in the EU;[4]  ethylene oxide is prohibited in the EU;[5] chromium is prohibited in the EU; [6] cadmium compounds are prohibited in Japan[7] and the EU;[8] arsenic is prohibited in the EU.[9]
Where do we find those known human carcinogenic chemicals?The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is an intergovernmental agency, and part of the World Health Organization. IARC’s mission is to enhance collaboration in cancer research internationally.[10]
IARC consolidates scientific evidence and classifies the chemicals it reviews into five levels:[11]
  • Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
  • Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
  • Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
  • Group 3: Not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans
  • Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans.
Of the 113 agents listed by IARC as known human carcinogens (Groups 1), at least 11 have been or are currently used in personal care products: formaldehyde, phenacetin, coal tar, benzene, untreated or mildly treated mineral oils, methylene glycol, ethylene oxide, chromium, cadmium and its compounds, arsenic, and crystalline silica or quartz.[12]
Carcinogens in personal care products: Chemicals and their health concerns?
FormaldehydePhenacetinCoal TarBenzene Mineral oils (untreated and mildly treated)Ethylene oxide Heavy MetalsCadmium and its compoundsArsenicChromium Silica 

Reference
[1] Ministry of Healtth, Labour and Welfare. Standards for Cosmetics. Available online: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/dl/cosmetics.pdf July 23, 2014.
[2] European Commission. Crude and refined coal tars. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.details&id=28255 July 23, 2014.
[3] European Commission. Crude and refined coal tars. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.details&id=28768 July 23, 2014.
[4] European Commission. Chromium trioxide. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.details_v2&id=28884 July 23, 2014.
[5] European Commission. Crude and refined coal tars. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.details&id=28401 July 23, 2014.
[6] European Commission. Chromium trioxide. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.details_v2&id=80923 July 23, 2014.
[7] Ministry of Healtth, Labour and Welfare. Standards for Cosmetics. Available online: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/dl/cosmetics.pdf July 23, 2014.
[8] European Commission. Cadmium and its compounds. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.details_v2&id=29456 July 23, 2014.
[9] European Commission. Arsenic. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.details_v2&id=28880July 23, 2014.
[10] International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC mission. Available online: http://www.iarc.fr/en/about/index.php July 31, 2014.
[11] International Agency for Research on Cancer. Agents classified by the IARC monographs, volumes 1-109. Available online: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ July 31, 2014.
[12] IARC Monographs. Agents classified by the IARC Monographs. Vol. 1-109, available online: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf July 22, 2014.
[13] Occupational Safety & Health Administration. Formaldehyde. Available online: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/formaldehyde/index.html July 30, 2014.
[14] Moennich J. et al. Formaldehyde-releasing preservative in baby and cosmetic products. Journal of the Dermatology Nurses’ Association, vol. 1, pp. 211-214, 2009.
[15] Jacob S. & Breithaupt A., Environmental Exposures – A pediatric perspective on allergic contact dermatitis. Skin & Aging. July 2009: 28-36.
[16] Calfornia Safe Cosmetics Program Product Database. Formaldehyde. Available online: https://safecosmetics.cdph.ca.gov/search/categories.aspx August 6, 2014.
[17] Joshua H, & Hillebrand E., Determination of free formaldehyde in cosmetic preservatives and surfactants by HPLC with postcolumn derivatization. American Laboratory, vol. 42, no. 8, pp 14-15, 2010.
[18] Jacob S. & Breithaupt A., Environmental Exposures – A pediatric perspective on allergic contact dermatitis. Skin & Aging. July 2009: 28-36.
[19] Moennich J. et al. Formaldehyde-releasing golpreservative in baby and cosmetic products. Journal of the Dermatology Nurses’ Association, vol. 1, pp. 211-214, 2009.
[20] Jacob S. & Breithaupt A., Environmental Exposures – A pediatric perspective on allergic contact dermatitis. Skin & Aging. July 2009: 28-36.
[21] Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. Available online: http://oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/files/P65single01032014.pdf July 22, 2014.
[22]IARC Monographs. Agents classified by the IARC Monographs. Vol. 1-109, available online: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf July 22, 2014.
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